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作者:未知 文章來源:互聯網 更新時間:2008-08-28 16:54:05
    資料提示: 173 "Originality does not mean thinking something that was never thought before; it means putting old ideas together in...

173 "Originality does not mean thinking something that was never thought before; it means putting old ideas together in new ways."

173. 創造性不是指想人們沒有想過的東西;而是以新方式將舊觀點組織在一起。

174 "Laws should not be rigid or fixed. Instead, they should be flexible enough to take account of various circumstances, times, and places."

174. 法律不應該太僵化、太固定。他們應該是靈活的,考慮到各種實際情況、時間和地點。

175 "It is always an individual who is the impetus for innovation; the details may be worked out by a team, but true innovation results from the enterprise and unique perception of an individual."

175. 總是某個個人推動了革新;可能由團隊完成細節,但是真正的革新來自于個人的進取心與不尋常的洞察力。

176 "The function of science is to reassure; the purpose of art is to upset. Therein lies the value of each."

176. 科學的目的是使人們安心,藝術的目的是使人們不安。這就是它們各自的價值。

177 "The study of an academic discipline alters the way we perceive the world. After studying the discipline, we see the same world as before, but with different eyes."

177. 對學術的研究改變了我們感知世界的方式。探究了這些領域之后,看同樣的世界,卻是不同的視角。

178 "It is possible to pass laws that control or place limits on people s behavior, but legislation cannot reform human nature. Laws cannot change what is in people s hearts and minds."

178. 控制、限制人們行為的法律可能建立,但是立法不能改變人們的本性,法律無法改變人們的所思所想。

179 "What most human beings really want to attain is not knowledge, but certainty. Gaining real knowledge requires taking risks and keeping the mind open -- but most people prefer to be reassured rather than to learn the complex and often unsettling truth about anything."

179. 人類真正希望獲取的不是知識,而是確定性。獲取真正的知識需要冒險,并且要有開放的心靈,但是大多數人更喜歡確定感,而不是去了解事物復雜的,甚至是使人不安的真相。

180 "Many problems of modern society cannot be solved by laws and the legal system because moral behavior cannot be legislated."

180. 現代社會的許多問題是法律和司法系統不能解決的,因為道德行為無法立法。

181 "The way students and scholars interpret the materials they work with in their academic fields is more a matter of personality than of training.
Different interpretations come about when people with different personalities look at exactly the same objects, facts, data, or events and see different things."

181. 研究者和學者們詮釋他們研究領域的資料時,更多的是一種個人化的行為,而不是擁有客觀的標準。當個性不同的人看待完全相同的物體、事實、數據或者事件時,會給出不同的詮釋,看到不同的東西。

182 "It is dangerous to trust only intelligence."

182. 只相信智力是危險的。(Intelligence:The faculty of thought and reason. 故智力-理性相對于直覺-感性,我的理解)

183 "As we acquire more knowledge, things do not become more comprehensible , but more complex and more mysterious."

183. 隨著我們獲取的知識越來越多,事情不是變得更好理解,而是變得更復雜更神秘。

184 "It is a grave mistake to theorize before one has data."

184. 在沒有證據之前就得出理論,是重大錯誤。

185 "Scandals -- whether in politics, academia, or other areas -- can be useful. They focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer ever could."

185. 丑聞,不管是政治、學術還是其他領域,都是有用的。它們能吸引人們的注意力,而使我們聚焦于問題,以一種演講者和改革家都做不到的方式。

186 "Practicality is now our great idol, which all powers and talents must serve. Anything that is not obviously practical has little value in today s world."

186. 現在,實用性是我們最大的追求,所有的力量和聰明才智都應為其努力。任何沒有明顯實用性的東西在當今世界都是沒有價值的。

187 "It is easy to welcome innovation and accept new ideas. What most people find difficult, however, is accepting the way these new ideas are put into practice."

187. 人們很容易歡迎革新和接受新思想。但是,人們發現最困難的是接受把新思想應用到實踐中來的方式。

188 "Success, whether academic or professional, involves an ability to survive in a new environment and, eventually, to change it."

188. 成功,不管是學術上還是專業上的,都包括適應新環境并最終改變它的能力。

189 "If people disregard the great works of the past, it is because these works no longer answer the needs of the present."

189. 如果人們忽視了過去的偉大成就,那是因為這些成就已不能再回應目前的需要。

190 "As long as people in a society are hungry or out of work or lack the basic skills needed to survive, the use of public resources to support the arts is inappropriate -- and, perhaps, even cruel -- when one considers all the potential uses of such money."

190. 當人們挨餓、失業或者缺少維持生存的基本技能時,動用公眾資源來支持藝術就不合適了,也許,考慮到這些金錢的所有可能用途時,就更不人道了。

191 "Education should be equally devoted to enriching the personal lives of students and to training students to be productive workers."

191. 教育應該把這兩件事看得同等重要-豐富學生的個人生活,把學生培養成生產者。

192 "Success in any realm of life comes more often from taking chances or risks than from careful and cautious planning."

192. 生活各個方面的成功更多是來自機遇或者冒險,而不是仔細和謹慎的規劃。

193 "It is not the headline-making political events but the seldom-reported social tranformations that have the most lasting significance."

193. 更有持久影響的不是頭版頭條的政治事件,而是鮮有報道的社會變革。

194 "The best preparation for life or a career is not learning to be competitive, but learning to be cooperative."

194. 為生活和工作做的最好準備,不是學會競爭,而是學會合作。

195 "The goal of politics should not be the pursuit of an ideal, but rather the search for common ground and reasonable consensus."

195. 政治的目標不應是追求一個理想狀態,而是尋找共同點和合情合理的共識。

196 "Technology creates more problems than it solves, and may threaten or damage the quality of life."

196. 科技產生的問題多于所解決的,可能威脅或降低人們的生活質量。

197 "The material progress and well-being of one country are necessarily connected to the material progress and well-being of all other countries."

197. 一個國家的生活質量提高和社會的安定是和其他所有國家的生活質量提高和社會安定密不可分的。

198 "Instead of encouraging conformity, society should show greater appreciation of individual differences."

198. 社會應該贊賞個性差異,而不是鼓勵一致統一。

199 "Truly innovative ideas do not arise from groups of people, but from in dividuals. When groups try to be creative, the members force each other to compromise and, as a result, creative ideas tend to be weakened and made more conventional. Most original ideas arise from individuals working alone."

199. 真正創新的思想不是來自群體,而是來自個人。當一個群體試圖創新時,群體中的成員使得彼此相互妥協,最終削弱集體的創造性,趨向遵循傳統。大部分創造性思想來自于個人的獨立工作。

200 "The most elusive knowledge is self-knowledge, and it is usually acquired through solitude, rather than through interaction with others."

200. 最難的莫過于認知自我,通常只能通過獨處,而非與他人交往來了解自己。

201 "The purpose of education should be to provide students with a value system, a standard, a set of ideas -- not to prepare them for a specific job."

201. 教育的目的應是給學生提供一個價值系統,標準以及一系列理念,而不是使他們為某一特定工作做好準備。

202 "Unlike great thinkers and great artists, the most effective political leaders must often yield to public opinion and abandon principle for the sake of compromise."

202. 和偉大的思想家、藝術家不同,最有效力的政治領導者必須經常向公眾輿論讓步,有時為了折衷要放棄原則。

203 "The best way to understand the character of a society is to examine the character of the men and women that the society chooses as its heroes or its heroines."

203. 了解社會特征的最佳方式就是研究那個社會所認為的英雄人物的特征。

204 "We learn through direct experience; to accept a theory without experie ncing it is to learn nothing at all."

204. 我們通過直接經驗學習;沒有通過實踐而接受一個理論是學不到任何東西的。

205 "As societies all over the world have more and more access to new infor mation, the effects on life-long learning can only be positive."

205. 全世界的人有越來越多的途徑來獲取新信息,這對終身學習只會有積極的推動作用。

206 "People are too quick to take action; instead they should stop to think of the possible consequences of what they might do."


206. 人們行動太快了;他們應該停下來想一想行動的可能后果。

207 "Rituals and ceremonies help define a culture. Without them, societies or groups of people have a diminished sense of who they are."

207. 典禮和儀式有助于確立一種文化,否則人們的社會或群體的角色歸屬感削弱。

208 "The way people look, dress, and act reveals their attitudes and interests. You can tell much about a society s ideas and values by observing the appearance and behavior of its people."

208. 人們的眼神、衣著和行動表現出他們的態度和興趣。你可以通過觀察人們的外表和行為來獲知許多這個社會的思想和價值觀。

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209 "Progress is best made through discussion among people who have contras ting points of view."

209. 在持不同意見的人們中展開討論是進步的最佳方式。

210 "Most people choose a career on the basis of such pragmatic considerations as the needs of the economy, the relative ease of finding a job, and the salary they can expect to make. Hardly anyone is free to choose a career based on his or her natural talents or interest in a particular kind of work."

210. 大多數人找工作是基于實用性的考慮:經濟需求、較易找到工作,希望拿到的薪水。很少有人自由地根據自己對某一份工作的才能和興趣出發去選擇職業。

211 "Any decision-whether made by government, by a corporation, or by an in dividual person-must take into account future conditions more than present conditions."

211. 一個決策,不管政府、企業抑或個人做出的,都應該考慮將來的情形多于目前的情形。

212 "If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it is justifiable. "

212. 如果一個目標是值得的,那么追求目標的任何手段都是正當的。

213 "Too much emphasis has been placed on the need for students to challenge the assertions of others. In fact, the ability to compromise and work with others -- that is, the ability to achieve social harmony -- should be a major goal in every school."

213. 學校太強調教學生怎么質疑他人的主張。實際上,培養折衷和與他人合作的能力,也就是促進社會和諧的能力應該被作為每個學校的主要目標。

214 "Society should identify those children who have special talents and abilities and begin training them at an early age so that they can eventually excel in their areas of ability. Otherwise, these talents are likely to remain undeveloped."

214. 社會應該找出那些具有特殊天才和能力的孩子,并在小時候就訓練他們,這樣他們最終能在此領域表現出眾,否則這些潛能可能得不到發展。

215 "The bombardment of visual images in contemporary society has the effect of making people less able to focus clearly and extensively on a single issue over a long period of time."

215. 當今社會視覺影像的爆炸使得人們不能長時間明確且全面地關注某一問題。

216 "Most important discoveries or creations are accidental: it is usually while seeking the answer to one question that we come across the answer to another."

216. 大多數重大發現和發明都是偶然的:通常情況下人們為了某個問題尋找答案,卻在這一過程中找到了另一問題的答案。

217 "In order to produce successful original work, scholars and scientists must first study the successful work of others to learn what contributions remain to be made."

217. 為了取得成功的原創業績,學者和科學家必須首先研究那些別人的成功業績,然后確定還有那些領域存在研究價值。

218 "In order for any work of art -- whether film, literature, sculpture,or a song -- to have merit, it must be understandable to most people." 218. 藝術作品要有價值,不管是電影、文學還是歌曲,都必須讓大多數人能夠理解。

219 "Now that computer technology has made possible the rapid accessing of large amounts of factual information, people are less likely than ever to think deeply or originally. They feel unable to compete with -- much less contribute to -- the quantity of information that is now available electronically."

219. 現在計算機技術已經使快速地訪問大量的信息成為可能,人們已經不像以前那樣進行深入和有創造力地思考了。他們感覺無法,也沒有意義去和現在可以電子化獲取的信息量相比。

220 "The increase in knowledge is forcing people to specialize. As a result , the distance between fields of specialization has become so vast that specialists in different areas are rarely able to influence each other."

220. 知識增長迫使人們將其專業化。結果專業化領域間的跨度非常大,以至不同領域的專家彼此之間很少能夠相互影響。

221 "The chief benefit of the study of history is to break down the illusion that people in one period of time are significantly different from people who lived at any other time in history."

221. 研究歷史最明顯的好處就是消除了這樣的錯覺,某個時代的人們與歷史上另一個時代的人們有重大的差別。

222 "Learning for learning s sake is an outdated concept. Today, education must serve an ulterior purpose and be directed toward clear goals."

222. 為了學習而學習已經是過時的理念。現在的教育必須是面向未來并且有明確的目標。

223 "Education is primarily a personal matter; it has little to do with school or college."

223. 教育主要是個人的事情,與學校或者大學基本沒有關系。

224. "Censorship is rarely, if ever, justified."

224. 審查制度很少被證明是正當的。

225. "People often look for similarities, even between very different things , and even when it is unhelpful or harmful to do so. Instead, a thing should be considered on its own terms; we should avoid the tendency to compare it to something else."

225. 人們經常尋找相似處,不管兩個事物有多么不同,即便這樣做沒有意義或是有害的。我們應該就事論事,避免把它拿去和其他事物比較。

226 "People are mistaken when they assume that the problems they confront are more complex and challenging than the problems faced by their predecessors. This illusion is eventually dispelled with increased knowledge and experience."

226. 人們錯誤地認為他們碰到的問題要比他們前輩碰到的問題更復雜、更具挑戰性。這個錯覺最終會隨著知識和經驗的積累消除。

227 "To remain vigorous, any academic field needs to be led by truly independent thinkers who are willing to ignore established boundaries and challenge long-standing assumptions."

227. 為了保持活力,任何學術領域都需要由真正獨立的思想者領導,這些人無視傳統的束縛,敢于挑戰根深蒂固的思想。

228 "The best way to teach -- whether as an educator, employer, or parent -- is to praise positive actions and ignore negative ones."

228. 最佳教育方式,不管是作為一個教育工作者、雇主還是父母,都是表揚積極的行為,忽略負面的行為。

229 "The best way to learn a new subject or skill is to study small segments or details in great depth rather than to start by trying to develop asense of the whole."

229. 學習新學科或技能的最佳方式是深入研究小片斷或細節,而不是一開始就試圖獲取整體的認識。

230 "College students -- and people in general -- prefer to follow directions rather than make their own decisions. Therefore, colleges should eliminate as many choices as possible in order to offer students clear direction."

230. 大學生-還有普通人-都更喜歡跟從指導,而不是做出自己的決定。因此,大學應該盡可能讓學生少做選擇,給學生提供明確的方向。

231 " Moderation in all things is ill-considered advice. Rather, one should say, Moderation in most things, since many areas of human concern require or at least profit from intense focus."

231. “對所有事情適度”是不正確的建議。而應是“對大多數事情要適度。”因為人們從事的許多領域需要或者至少得益于執著。(這里的適度類似中庸)

232 "The purpose of education should be to create an academic environment that is separate from the outside world. This kind of environment is ideal because it allows students to focus on important ideas without being held back by practical concerns."

232. 教育的目的應該是建立一個與世隔離的學術環境。這種環境是很理想的,因為這樣學生們就可以不被日常事務牽扯精力而專注地研究重要問題。

233 "Although innovations such as video, computers, and the Internet seem to offer schools improved methods for instructing students, these technologies all too often distract from real learning."

233. 盡管技術創新,如錄像機、計算機以及因特網看似改善了學校的教學方式,但這些技術時常分散真實的學習。

234."Most people prefer restrictions and regulations to absolute freedom of choice, although they would probably deny such a preference."

234.大多數人更傾向于限制與規則,而不是絕對的自由,雖然他們可能會否認這一點。

235."Most people are taught that loyalty is a virtue. But loyalty—whether to one s friends, to one s school or place of employment, or to any institution —is all too often a destructive rather than a positive force."

235.大多數人被教育說忠誠是一種美德。但是,忠誠-無論對于朋友、學校、受雇公司或任何機構來說,經常都是一種有害而非積極的力量。

236."Encouraging young people to believe that they can accomplish great things
if they try hard enough is both misleading and potentially harmful."

236.鼓勵年輕人相信如果他們足夠努力就能成就偉大的事業,不僅是誤導而且可能是有害的。

237."Computers and video technology can make facsimiles of original works such as paintings and historical documents available to everyone. The great advantage of this new technology is that it will enable anyone—not just scholars—to conduct in-depth research without having access to the original works."

237.計算機以及視頻技術可以制作原件的復制品,使得普通人都能接觸到繪畫或歷史文件,此新技術的巨大優點在于它使得每一個人-而不只是學者-能夠不接觸原件而進行深入的研究。

238."Conformity almost always leads to a deadening of individual creativity and energy."
238.一致性幾乎總是壓抑個性化創造和活力。

239."Much of the information that people assume is factual actually turns out to be inaccurate. Thus, any piece of information referred to as a fact should be mistrusted since it may well be proven false in the future."

239.許多人們認為“真實”的信息結果是不準確的。因此,對任何被稱為“事實”的信息都應該此懷疑態度,因為很有可能它將來被證實是虛假的。

240."Although it is easy to respond positively to the work of another person or group, it is far more worthwhile to give negative feedback."

240.雖然很容易對他人和團體的工作給出肯定的反饋,但是給出否定的反饋更有價值。

241."An individual s greatness cannot be judged objectively by his or her contemporaries; the most objective evaluators of a person s greatness are people who belong to a later time."
241.個體的偉大成就不能由同時代的人來評判;對于成就最客觀的評價者是后來人。

242. "Societies should try to save every plant and animal species, regardless of
the expense to humans in effort, time, and financial well-being."

242.社會應盡力挽救每一動植物物種,不管花費多少人力、時間和財力。

243."The true value of a civilization is reflected in its artistic creations rather than in its scientific accomplishments."

243. 文明真正的價值反映在它的藝術創作上,而不是科學成就上。

244 "Most societies do not take their greatest thinkers seriously, even when they claim to admire them."

244. 大多數社會并不重視偉大的思想家,即使社會宣稱景仰這些思想家。

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