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    資料提示:全國碩士研究生入學考試英語模擬試題 Test One Section Ⅰ Use of English Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for e...

全國碩士研究生入學考試英語模擬試題 Test One

Section Ⅰ Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on Answer Sheet 1. (10 points)

Most worthwhile careers require some kind of specialized training. Ideally, therefore, the choice of an 1 should be made even before choice of a curriculum in high school.

Actually, 2 , most people make several job choices during their working lives, 3 because of economic and industrial changes and partly to improve their position. The “one perfect job” does not exist. Young people should 4 enter into a broad flexible training program that will fit them for a 5 of work rather than for a single job.

Unfortunately many young people have to make career plans 6 benefit of help from a competent vocational counselor or psychologist. Knowing 7 about the occupational world, or themselves for that matter, they choose their lifework on a hit-or-miss 8 . Some drift from job to job. Others 9 to work in which they are unhappy and for which they are not fitted.

One common mistake is choosing an occupation for its real or 10 prestige. Too many high瞫chool students or their parents for them choose the professional field, 11 both the relatively small proportion of workers in the professions and the extremely high educational and personal 12 . The prestige that people tend to 13 to a profession or a white-collar job is no good reason for choosing it as life’s work.

14 , these occupations are not always well paid. Since a large 15 of jobs are in mechanical and manual work, the majority of young people should give serious 16 to these fields.

Before making an occupational choice, a person should have a general idea of what he wants 17 life and how hard he is willing to work to get it. Some people desire social prestige, others intellectual 18 . Some want security; others are willing to take 19 for financial gain. Each occupational choice has its demands as well as its 20 .

1. [A] identification [B] entertainment [C] accommodation [D] occupation

2. [A] however [B] therefore [C] though [D] thereby

3. [A] entirely [B] mainly [C] partly [D] his

4. [A] since [B] therefore [C] furthermore [D] forever

5. [A] place [B] chance [C]field [D] opening

6. [A] to [B] for [C] without [D] with

7. [A] little [B] few [C] much [D] a lot

8. [A] chance [B] basis [C] purpose [D] opportunity

9. [A] apply [B] appeal [C] stick [D] turn

10. [A] imagined [B] substantial [C] acquired [D] demanded

11. [A] concerning [B] following [C] considering [D] disregarding

12. [A] preferences [B] requirements [C] tendencies [D] ambitions

13. [A] contribute [B] attach [C] attribute [D] allot

14. [A] Therefore [B] However [C] Nevertheless [D] Moreover

15. [A] proportion [B] part [C] quanitity [D] batch

16. [A] proposal [B] suggestion [C] consideration [D] appraisal

17. [A] towards [B] against [C] out of [D] without

18. [A] knowledge [B] satisfaction [C] culture [D] sensitivity

19. [A] turns [B] parts [C] choices [D] risks

20. [A] awards [B] requirements [C] results [D] needs

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on Answer Sheet 1. (40 points)

Text 1

It is said that people buy contemporary art when they are confident about the future and old art when they are not. Conventional wisdom has it that older art holds its value, while contemporary stuff is for risk-lovers. William Goetzmann, a professor at Yale, estimates that during the last art-market depression, which set in after 1990, impressionist and contemporary works fell by most (51% and 40% respectively), while Old Masters suffered least (down by 16%). Yet despite the ups and downs, contemporary works have been rewarding for those who are prepared to hang on: according to Jianping Mei and Michael Moses, professors at New York University (NYU) since 1970 the returns on contemporary art have far exceeded those on Old Masters and 19th-century paintings.

Since the late 1980s, more sophisticated analysis of the art market and a growing interest in alternative investments have spurred the creation of several new investment funds focused on art. At a recent conference organised by one of these, the Fine Art Fund, Rachel Campbell of Maastricht University pointed out the low correlation between returns on art and on those other investments. Given that it usually pays to diversify, that is a good argument for investing in art, whatever your taste. The Fine Art Fund, which began buying this April (and has 36% of its money in cash), advises that investors spread their art allocation fairly evenly between Impressionists, Old Masters, modern art and contemporary works.

Contemporary art, in particular, has served rich investors well in the past few years. Prices stayed stable when stock markets fell. Nevertheless, one recent academic study has found a correlation with another asset class: during the last world art boom, in the late 1980s, prices were closely tied to property values, specifically Japanese land prices. After 1990, art and property fell together. Now property prices in several countries are once again at frightening heights.

Investing in art will always be a risky business. Works of art by definition belong to different categories; holding periods vary; the market is illiquid; art yields no income, producing only capital gain or loss; transaction costs are high. As for contemporary art in particular, it is a sobering thought that, according to Mr Moses, each year an average of only two artists emerge whose work increases in value over time. All this speaks against a big commitment to speculating in art; better, maybe, simply to buy what you like, if you can: treat your money, in other words, not as invested but as consumed.

21. By saying that the market is illiquid (Line 2, Para. 4), the author suggests that .

[A] art works seldom lose their value in the market

[B] investment in art does not have guaranteed return of profits

[C] the difficulty to trade art works is obvious and evident

[D] the art market tends to be responsive to the economic situation

22. The Fine Art Fund advise that investors need to spread their art allocation because .

[A] Old Masters always promise a high return of profits

[B] different art works are valued differently in the market

[C] buying art works is always a good way of investment

[D] people should be aware of the risks of investment in art

23. The returns on contemporary art indicate .

[A] people have come to see the value of contemporary art

[B] the economic prospects are positively assessed

[C] there is a growing interest in alternative art investments

[D] investors have learned to spread their art allocation

24. We can learn from the text that .

[A] the two NYU professors advise people against buying Old Masters

[B] cautious investors are advised to stay away from the art market

[C] the real estate market is a good indicator of the art market

[D] art investors should not speculate in the art market

25. What is the possible attitude of Mr Moses toward investing in contemporary art?

[A] Investors in contemporary art should be more patient.

[B] A supplicated analysis of the art market is always a must.

[C] Contemporary art seems to promise greater returns of profits.

[D] It is dangerous to speculate in the contemporary art market.

Text 2

They have been writers and actors, entertainers and creators. They have won Academy Awards and received critical acclaim. They have graced the covers of magazines.

In the arts and entertainment world, women have made a myriad of contributions to what we know as popular culture. Although many female celebrities may be known more for their figures than their talents, women remain more than just pretty faces. Women’s History Month promises to take a look back at the influential female lives and legacies that have shaped our society.

In this century alone, a number of famous females have made their artistic marks. In the literary world, women such as Sylvia Plath and Colette composed celebrated works, establishing themselves as creative writers to be reckoned with. Colette, a prolific French novelist, tackled weighty themes such as the woman’s struggle for independence. Her catalog of works includes celebrated novels such as Cheri and The Pure and the Impure. Plath, renowned for her suicide as much as for her writing, wrote The Bell Jar as well as a wealth of poetry.

Within the realm of fashion, influential designers such as Coco Chanel changed the face of female dressing. The Chanel name has become synonymous with high style. Coco invented the little black dress, perfected a trademark scent—Chanel No. 5—and became famous for her tweed suits and quilted handbags.

Hollywood starlets such as Katharine Hepburn transformed the film world. She was known for her portrayal of strong, spirited females in her films, clearly embodying what it means to be an independent woman. As Hepburn once said, “I never realized until lately that women were supposed to be the inferior sex. ”

The music industry has also seen its share of barrier-breaking female stars. Women such as Billie Holiday and Ella Fitzgerald endure as revered names within the jazz world. Similarly, Joan Baez took the folk music genre by storm. She was one of the most outspoken performers during the social turmoil of the 1960s, establishing herself not only as an acclaimed singer/songwriter but also as an activist for civil rights and nonviolence.

Undeniably, women have contributed to our culture in immeasurable ways. From the silver screen to the record-store shelves, the most talented stars exhibit a wealth of creativity, a fan瞱inning charisma and a unique dedication to their respective crafts—and many of them also happen to be female.

26. Who may be considered as a feminist writer according to the passage?

[A] Sylvia Plath.[B] Colettle.

[C] Both Plath and Colette.[D] Neither Plath nor Colette.

27. From the passage, we can learn that Chanel No. 5 is .

[A] a typical style of little black dress

[B] a perfume marketed by Chanel

[C] a high class way of life advocated by Coco

[D] the chanel tweed suits and quilted handbags.

28. By saying “women remain more than just pretty faces”, the author means .

[A] some women have nothing but pretty faces

[B] beauty for many female celebrities is necessary

[C] some women don’t mange to be successful for beauty

[D] each female celebrity has her own success story

29. Joan Baez is called an outspoken performer because she .

[A] stunned the world by the message her music expressed

[B] was expressive for her performance on the stage

[C] had to suffer the social turmoil of the 1960s

[D] openly voiced her opinions on the major social issues

30. Women’s contributions to pop culture are NOT caused by .

[A] their enthusiasm they have toward what they do

[B] the physical appeal they have to the public

[C] their understanding of the importance of pop culture

[D] the display of their natural talents and gifts

Text 3

Old people are always saying that the young are not what they were. The same comment is made from generation to generation and it is always true. It has never been truer than it is today. The young are better educated; they have a lot more money to spend and enjoy more freedom. They grow up more quickly and are not so dependent on their parents. They think more for themselves and do not blindly accept the ideals of their elders. Events which the older generation remembers vividly are nothing more than past history. This is as it should be. Every new generation is different from the one that preceded it. Today the difference is very marked indeed. The old always assume that they know best for the simple reason that they have been around a bit longer. They don’t like to feel that their values are being questioned or threatened. And this is precisely what the young are doing. They are questioning the assumptions of their elders and disturbing their sense of feeling contended. They doubt that the older generation has created the best of all possible worlds.

What they reject more than anything is conformity. Office hours, for instance, are nothing more than enforced slavery. Wouldn’t people work best if they were given complete freedom and responsibility? And what about clothing? Who said that all the men in the world should wear dull gray suits and convict haircuts? If we turn our minds to more serious matters, who said that human differences can best be solved through conventional politics or by violent means? Why have the older generation so often used violence to solve their problems? Why are they so unhappy and guilt-ridden in their personal lives; so obsessed with mean ambitions and the desire to amass more and more material possessions? Can anything be right with the rat-race? Haven’t the old lost touch with all that is important in life?

These are not questions the older generation can shrug off lightly. Their record over the past forty years or so hasn’t been exactly spotless. Traditionally, the young have turned to the older for guidance. Today, the situation might be reversed. The old—if they are prepared to admit it—could learn a thing or two from their children. One of the biggest lessons they could learn is that enjoyment is not sinful. Enjoyment is a principle one could apply to all aspects of life. It is surely not wrong to enjoy your work and enjoy your leisure; to shed restricting inhibitions. It is surely not wrong to live in the present rather than in the past or future. The world is full of uncertainty and tension. This is their glorious heritage. Can we be surprised that they should so often question the sanity of the generation that passed it down?

31. Which of the following features in the young is NOT mentioned?

[A] Better educated[B] More money and freedom.

[C] Greater independence. [D] Respect for work.

32. What do the young have an attitude for?

[A] The differences between the old and young.

[B] The assumption of the old generation.

[C] The emphasis on violence as a solution to social problems.

[D] The social conventions that they are expected to follow.

33. Why do the young stress on the present because .

[A] the past is full of sanity that should be done with

[B] the present is more secure than the past

[C] the present world is substantial and sustaining

[D] the present is made up of a glorious heritage

34. What can the old learn from the young generation?

[A] Enjoyment is not despicable for what it is

[B] People should have more time for leisure.

[C] It is a blessing that people can learn to enjoy life

[D] One should break free of the restrictions that life imposes

35. How do the young think about office hours?

[A] They are more painful than enforced slavery

[B] They are happier than enforced slavery

[C] They are almost as painful as enforced slavery

[D] They are the most painful enforced slavery

Text 4

Researchers are finding that boys and girls really are from two different planets. Experts say boys and girls have different “crisis points”, stages in their emotional and social development where things can go very wrong. Until recently, girls got all the attention. But boys are much more likely than girls to have discipline problems at school and to be diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). Boys far outnumber girls in special-education classes. They’re also more likely to commit violent crimes and end up in jail.

Even normal boy behavior has come to be considered pathological(病態的)in the wake of the feminist movement. An abundance of physical energy and the urge to conquer-these are normal male characteristics, and in an earlier age they were good things, even essential to survival. “If Huck Finn or Tom Sawyer were alive today,” says Michael Gurian, author of The Wonder of Boys, “we’d say they had ADD.” He says one of the new insights we’re gaining about boys is a very old one: boys will be boys. “They are who they are,” says Gurian, “and we need to love them for who they are. Let’s not try to rewire them.”

But what exactly is the essential nature of boys? Even as infants, boys and girls behave differently. A recent study at Children’s Hospital in Boston found that boy babies are more emotionally expressive; girls are more reflective. (That means boy babies tend to cry when they’re unhappy; girl babies suck their thumbs.) This could indicate that girls are innately more able to control their emotions. Boys have higher levels of testosterone and lower levels of neurotransmitter serotonin(神經傳遞素), which inhabits aggression(睪丸激素) and impulsivity. That may help explain why more males than females carry through with suicide or become alcoholics.

There’s a struggle between a desire and need for warmth on the one hand and a pull toward independence on the other. Boys are going through what psychologists long ago declared an integral part of growing up: individualization and disconnection from parents, especially mothers. But now some researchers think that process is too abrupt. When boys repress normal feelings like love because of social pressure, says William Pollack, head of the Center for Men at Boston’s McLean Hospital, “they’ve lost contact with the genuine nature of whom they are and what they feel. Boys are in a silent crisis. The only time we notice it is when they pull the trigger.”

36. Which of the following is NOT true according to the first paragraph?

[A] Boys and girls are different.

[B] Boys need more attention than girls.

[C] Girls almost need no help from society.

[D] Boys are more difficult to educate than girls.

37. What can be inferred about Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn (Line 4, Para. 2)?

[A] They were more like today’s girls than boys.

[B] They suffered Attention Deficit Disorder but were not diagnosed.

[C] They were energetic and conquering.

[D] They had more problems than today’s boys.

38. The word “rewire” (Line 7, Para. 2) could best be replaced by .

[A] restore to a former condition [B] recognize the worth of

[C] change the nature of [D] address the problems of

39. Which aspect of the boy瞘irl differences does Para. 3 discuss?

[A] Physiological. [B] Psychological. [C] Cultural. [D] Intellectual.

40. It is implied in the passage that .

[A] society approves of boys who have tender feelings

[B] society expects boys to be independent

[C] boys take more time to grow up than girls

[D] boys and girls can never receive similar treatment

Part B

Directions:

In the following article, some sentences have been removed. For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blank. There are two extra choices, which do not fit in any of the gaps. Mark your answers on Answer Sheet 1.

William Lanouette’s biography of Leo Szilard, Genius in the Shadows, does more than reveal the life of a brilliant physicist and social activist; it sheds a perceptive light on the role of scientists in public policy. World War II is usually recognized as the coming of age of science in U.S. politics. Albert Einstein had become the world’s first science celebrity and a person to whom presidents felt obliged to listen. (41) Bush laid the foundation for a postwar science policy that would put government in the dominant role in funding basic research.

What is instructive about Szilard’s life, however, is not the political influence of scientists as a group. (42) He believed that scientists should have more influence in policymaking in general—not because of their knowledge but because of their ability to think rationally. This faith in reason was a weakness in Szilard’s political thinking, however, because it prevented him from understanding the emotional forces that must also be taken into account.

(43) And although he often used the reputation of his friend Einstein to gain access to decision makers, he believed firmly that it was the power of his ideas that deserved attention. He felt the same way about science. Even as an unemployed and relatively unknown physicist, he expected the giants in the field to respect his ideas if they made sense.

(44) He didn’t assume that he should be listened to just because he was a brilliant physicist, and he accepted that even the most enlightened thinking had to be promoted vigorously to be influential. Of course, it didn’t hurt that he was way ahead of his time in recognizing the threat posed by Hitler, the importance of nuclear weapons, and the problems with nuclear weapons that would arise after the war.

(45) First, the most important policies are those that address issues bigger than science itself. Szilard studied and cared deeply about the larger issues of governance, not just the role of science. Second, he understood that his scientific training did not entitle him to influence and that the quality of his thinking did not mean that the world’s leaders would come knocking at his door. He knew that to make a difference in the world it is necessary to think broadly; to win support through compelling analysis, not reputation; and to work tirelessly to promote one’s ideas.

[A] What Szilard did was to approach public policy with the same vigor, determination, and persistence with which good scientists approach science. What works in advancing science can also work in improving policy.

[B] The key to Szilard’s effectiveness and influence was his sense of responsibility for making the world a better place. Once he decided that something should be done, he devoted enormous energy, resourcefulness, and audacity to advancing his proposal.

[C] But Szilard was not expecting to be influential in policy debates just because he was a scientist. An avid newspaper reader, he was extremely well informed about public affairs.

[D] The Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb was an unprecedented federal investment in research, and questions about how to use the insights of nuclear physics for military and civilian purposes brought scientists into direct conversation with the nation’s leaders.

[E] Not everything that Szilard advocated was wise; reason sometimes overwhelmed common sense. Still, his life illustrates important lessons for scientists who want to influence public policy.

[F] Indeed, it was the scientific hyper-rationality of someone like Szilard that Roald Hoffman had in mind when he questioned why scientists shouldn’t run the world.

[G] Szilard’s efforts to convince the government to develop nuclear weapons and his subsequent campaigns to establish civilian and international control of the power of the atom are an inspiring example of how a determined individual can play a major role in public policy.

Part C

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written clearly on Answer Sheet 2. (10 points)

The universities are schools of education, and schools of research. (46) But the primary reason for their existence is not to be found either in the mere knowledge conveyed to the students or in the mere opportunities for research afforded to the members of the faculty.

Both these functions could be performed at a cheaper rate, apart from these very expensive institutions. Books are cheap, and the system of apprenticeship is well understood. (47) So far as the mere imparting of information is concerned, no university has had any justification for existence since the popularisation of printing in the fifteenth century. Yet the chief impetus to the foundation of universities came after that date, and in more recent times has even increased.

(48) The justification for a university is that it preserves the connection between knowledge and the zest of life, by uniting the young and the old in the imaginative consideration of learning. The university imparts information, but it imparts it imaginatively. At least, this is the function which it should perform for society. A university which fails in this respect has no reason for existence.

This atmosphere of excitement, arising from imaginative consideration, transforms knowledge. A fact is no longer a bare fact: it is invested with all its possibilities. It is no longer a burden on the memory: it is energising as the poet of our dreams, and as the architect of our purposes.

Imagination is not to be divorced from the facts: it is a way of illuminating the facts. (49) It works by drawing the general principles which apply to the facts, as they exist, and then by an intellectual survey of alternative possibilities which are consistent with those principles. It enables men to construct an intellectual vision of a new world, and it preserves the zest of life by the suggestion of satisfying purposes.

Youth is imaginative, and if the imagination be strengthened by discipline this energy of imagination can in great measure be preserved through life. The tragedy of the world is that those who are imaginative have but slight experience, and those who are experienced have feeble imaginations. Fools act on imagination without knowledge; pedants act on knowledge without imagination. The task of a university is to weld together imagination and experience.

The initial discipline of imagination in its period of youthful vigour requires that there be no responsibility for immediate action. (50) The habit of unbiased thought, whereby the ideal variety of exemplification is discerned in its derivation from general principles, cannot be acquired when there is the daily task of preserving a concrete organisation. You must be free to think rightly and wrongly, and free to appreciate the variousness of the universe undisturbed by its perils.

Section Ⅲ Writing

Part A

51.Directions:

Six months from now, you will be graduating from the university. For the time being, you are looking for a chance of internship at the Evening Post of the city.

1) State your wish to work as an intern with the newspaper;

2) Explain what kind of job that you’re looking for;

3) And State your reasons why you can do the job well.

Write your letter with no less than 100 words. Write it neatly on Answer Sheet 2. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter, use “Li Ming” instead. You do not need to write the address. (10 points)

Part B

52.Directions:

Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should first describe the drawing, interpret its meaning, and give your comment on it.

You should write neatly on Answer Sheet 2. (20 points)

Test One 答案速查

Section One DACBC CABCA DBCDA CCBDA

Section Two CBBCD BBCDC DDCAC CCCAB DGCBE

答案精析

Section Ⅰ Use of English

1. [答案] D名詞辨析。此句的意思是“在高中選課前就應選擇好職業。”A)identification 意為“識別,鑒定”;B)entertainment意為“款待, 娛樂”;C)accommodation 意為“住處, 膳宿”:D)occupation意為“職業”。故D正確。

2. [答案] A連詞辨析。空格后的句子意思是“實際上大多數人在職業生涯中要換幾次工作,……”該句和上一句之間顯然是轉折關系。故A正確。

3. [答案] C副詞辨析。這是由and 連接的并列句,既然and 后面跟著partly,那前面肯定也是 partly。故C正確。此句的意思是“……部分是因為經濟和產業的變化,部分是因為想提高他們的地位。”

4. [答案] B連詞辨析。前一句意思是“理想的工作是不存在的。”后一句意思是“年輕人應該參加廣泛的職業訓練活動……。”這兩句顯然是因果關系。故B正確。

5. [答案] C名詞辨別。從上下文來看,空格所填的單詞與work連用應該涵蓋a single job,因此應該選擇field。a field of work表示“工作的領域”。正確答案為C。

6. [答案] C介詞辨析。從空格后benefit of help from...(受益于……的幫助)和此句句首的副詞unfortunately(不幸的是)可知要選的詞要有否定意義。故C正確。

7. [答案] A副詞辨析。此句的意思是“對職業世界知道很少……”。故A正確。

8. [答案] B名詞辨析。此句的意思是“他們是毫無目的地尋找他們一生的工作”。on...basis, 或on the basis of...意思是“基于……”。故B正確。

9. [答案] C動詞辨析。由前一句的some 和此句的others 可知兩句是對應的關系,由此可知這兩句的謂語動詞也應是對應的。動詞drift“漂浮;漂蕩” 對應的詞應該是stick “固守, 堅持”。故C正確。A)apply意為“申請, 應用”;B)appeal意為“求助;吸引”D) turn意為“轉動”。

10. [答案] A形容詞辨析。注意句中的or,這個連詞通常表示一種選擇,即兩者必選其一。既然or前面的單詞是real,那么or所接的單詞應該表示與real相反的意思。因此,正確的答案是A)imagined想象的,不真實的。

11. [答案] D動詞辨析。四個選項是現在分詞,實際上就是動詞的辨析。A)concern意為“涉及, 關系到”;B)follow意為“跟隨, 接著”;C)consider意為“考慮, 認為”;D)disregard意為“忽視,不顧”。故D正確。

12. [答案] B名詞辨析。A)preference意為“偏愛, 優先選擇”;B)requirement意為“要求, 必要條件”;C)tendency意為“趨向, 傾向”;D)ambition意為“雄心,野心”。根據句意,應該選B。

13. [答案] C動詞辨析。A)contribute意為“貢獻”;B)attach表示“隸屬”;C)attribute意為“歸結”;D)allot意為“分配”。正確的選項是C。

14. [答案] D副詞辨析。空格后的句子的意思是“這些工作的工資也不總是很高”,顯然這是繼前面進一步說明職業性工作不一定就是最好的選擇。故D正確。Moreover意為“而且, 此外”。

15. [答案] A名詞辨析。A) proportion意為“部分”,作量詞時一般修飾可數名詞;B) part作量詞意為“部分”,但是后面一般跟不可數名詞;C) quantity意為“數量”,后面也通常接不可數名詞;D)batch意為“(一)批”,一般作貨物的量詞。故A正確。

16. [答案] C名詞辨析。該句的意思為:“大多數年輕人應該認真考慮這些領域。” A) proposal意為“提議, 建議”;B) suggestion意為“建議”;C) consideration意為“體諒, 考慮”;D) appraisal意為“評價, 估價,鑒定”。根據句意應選C。

17. [答案] C介詞搭配。該句的意思是“一個人應該對生活的期望有個大致的想法”。out of意思是“從……中”。what he wants out of life意為“想從生活中得到什么”。故C正確。

18. [答案] B名詞辨別。選項中的名詞都能與intellectual連用,但是只有satisfaction最合適。

19. [答案] D名詞辨析。A) turn意為“轉動,輪流”; B)part意為“部分, 零件, 角色”;C)choice意為“選擇”;D)risk意為“冒險, 風險”。由前一句的some 和本句的others 可知兩句在意義上是對應的,既然前面是security“安全”,后面當然就是 risk。

20. [答案] A名詞辨析。該句的意思為:“每一份工作既有索取也有回報。” A)awards意為“獎勵,回報”;B)requirements意為“要求”;C)results表示“結果”;D)needs表示“需求”。故A正確。

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Text 1

文章概要:一般人們如對未來抱有信心就會購買當代藝術品,若沒有才會收藏古典藝術品。作者指出藝術品投資應多樣化,并強調藝術品投資風險大,尤其是當代藝術品。

21. [答案] C詞義理解題。這句的意思是“市場是非流動的”,也就是說市場上藝術品的交換很困難。因此C正確。

22. [答案] B細節理解題。 在文章的第二段里the Fine Art Fund指出,在藝術品投資上多樣化通常會很合算。也就是說不同的藝術品有不同的價值。故B正確。

23. [答案] B細節理解題。文章第一段第一句話就說:“當人們對未來有信心時,就會買當代藝術品;沒信心時就會買古代藝術品。七十年代人們熱衷于收藏當代藝術品肯定因為人們對經濟前景持樂觀態度。故B正確。

24. [答案] C判斷題。A不符合文章原意,因為紐約大學的兩位教授只說在七十年代人們對當代藝術品的熱情高于對古代藝術品。B是說建議謹慎投資者遠離藝術品市場。也不符合文章原意,文章只是說藝術品投資風險大,并沒有建議人們不要投資藝術品。C是說房地產是藝術品市場的晴雨表。作者在第三段里指出,最近的一項研究發現藝術品的價格與財產的價值緊緊連在一起,尤其是日本的土地價格。由此可判斷C為正確選項。D是說藝術品投資者不應該在藝術品市場上做投機買賣。這一點文章也沒有提及。

25. [答案] D細節理解題。題干問Mr. Moses對投資當代藝術品所持的態度。在文章最后一段倒數第二句中,Mr. Moses說每年平均只能出現兩位藝術家,其作品會隨著時間而增值。也就是說投資當代藝術品風險很大。故D正確。

Text 2

文章概要:文學、電影、時尚和音樂等方面涌現了一大批杰出的女性,她們以其創造力、魅力和奉獻精神為通俗文化做出了巨大的貢獻。

26. [答案] B細節理解題。文章第三段第三句說Colette是一位多產的法國小說家,寫諸如女性為獨立而斗爭的重大主題,由此可判斷B正確。

27. [答案] B細節理解題。注意Channel No.5 和scent之間的破折號,可知Channel No.5就是scent。Scent不僅指“香味”,也可指香水。故B正確。

28. [答案] C語義理解題。這是轉折關系復合句里的一個從句,前一個分句意思為“雖然許多女性名人更多的是以身材而不是以才能著名”,由此可理解下一個分句“但許多女性的成功不僅僅是漂亮的臉蛋”。故B正確。

29. [答案] D細節理解題。答案的依據在第六段最后一句:“在二十世紀六十年代的社會混亂期,她是最坦率直言的活動分子之一,不僅使自己成了受歡迎的歌手和作曲者,而且還成為民權和非暴力的激進主義分子。”由此可知D為正確選項。

30. [答案] C細節理解題。答案的依據在最后一段里。作者在這里指出,許多女性以其創造力、魅力和奉獻精神為通俗文化做出了貢獻。故C正確。

Text 3

文章概要:年輕人不同于年長者,他們得到更好的教育,享受更多的自由,他們獨立,討厭順從。年長者可以從他們的子女身上學到兩樣東西:一是享樂無罪,二是把快樂的原則應用到生活的各個方面。

31. [答案] D細節理解題。題干中的“the young”出自原文第一段第四句話。文章第一段指出:年輕人得到更好的教育;他們有更多的錢花,享受更多的自由;他們的成長更迅速,不那么依賴父母;他們更多地考慮自己,不盲目認可長輩的理想。顯然應選項D,“尊重工作”沒有提到。

32. [答案] D細節理解題。問題問年輕人反感什么。作者在第二段第一句就說,年輕人最討厭的就是順從。接著還列舉了種種年輕人質疑的社會習俗。因此D正確。

33. [答案] C細節理解題。作者在文章最后一段里指出:年輕人認為生活在現在而不是過去或將來肯定不是錯誤的,因為這個世界充滿了緊張和不確定性。故C正確。

34. [答案] A細節理解題。作者在最后一段中間部分指出,年長者可以從他們的子女身上學到兩樣東西,一是享樂無罪,二是可以把快樂的原則應用到生活的各個方面。因此A正確。

35. [答案] C細節理解題。文章第二段講到,工作時間對他們來說不過是強加的苦役。如果賦予人們完全的自由與責任,難道他們不會最出色地完成工作嗎?換句話來說,工作時間與強加的苦役一樣。故C正確。

Text 4

文章概要:本文通過介紹男女孩子在生理和行為上的差異,作者說明男孩子更難控制情感,更容易成為問題孩子,更容易走上犯罪道路。作者最后指出,男孩子在成長過程中一方面渴望和需要溫暖,另一方面又急于成為獨立的個體。

36. [答案] C作者在文章的第一段里指出:男孩子和女孩子不一樣,在學校里男孩子比女孩子更可能有紀律問題,在特殊教育的班上男孩子的人數要超過女孩子,男孩子也更有可能犯暴力罪而進監獄。A、B、D三個選項內容文章都提及了,就是沒說到C“女孩子幾乎不需要社會的幫助”。故C正確。

37. [答案] C答案的依據在第二段第二句里:“充沛的精力和想征服的強烈欲望——這些都是正常的男性特征,而且在早期被看作是好事情,甚至是生存的要素。”由此可判斷C正確。

38. [答案] C詞意理解題。作者在第二段里引用了Gurian的話:“男孩子就是男孩子,我們需要愛他們就因為是他們。我們不要試圖去改變他們。”由此可判斷C正確。

39. [答案] A作者在第三段里討論了男女孩子在嬰兒期的情況,指出女孩子比男孩子更能控制情感,因為男孩子睪丸激素高,而神經傳遞素卻低。由此可知第三段討論的是男女孩子生理上的問題,故A正確。

40. [答案] B作者在最后一段一開始就指出,男孩子的成長充滿著掙扎,一方面渴望和需要溫暖,另一方面被拉向獨立。換句話說,社會期待男孩子獨立。因此B正確。

Part B

篇章導讀

本文是一篇書評,作者介紹了一部關于Leo Szilard的傳記,并在同時對此人進行了一番評價。作者認為Szilard是一位杰出的物理學和社會活動家,閱讀這部傳記可以了解一位科學家是如何影響公共政策的。作者指出,科學家要想影響公共政策,首先要認識到最重要的政策涉及的面要比科學本身大,其次僅有科學素養是不夠的,科學家還應思路開闊,多作分析。

精析精解

41. [答案] D注意第一段第二句話中的“it sheds a perceptive light on the role of scientists in public policy.”(它使我們明白科學家在制定公共政策中的作用。)接著,作者說明第二次世界大戰是科學家影響美國政治的開始。隨后都是舉例說明科學對美國政治的影響。空白處的上文是以愛因斯坦為例,下文是以布什為例。因此,中間應該是另一個例證。選項D是正確的選擇。

42. [答案] G第二段的第一句顯然是該段的主題句,即Szilard的一生并不說明科學家以集體的力量影響政治。因此,空白處所填的語句應該表明Szilard是怎樣運用個人的力量影響政治。正確的選項顯然是G了。

43. [答案] C第二段講到Szilard堅信理智(reason)的力量,但是這樣也使他忽視了對情感力量的理解。換句話來說,有些政治議題不完全受理智的影響,而是受到情緒的影響,但是Szilard卻不大明白這一點。空白處的語句應該談到Szilard矢志不渝,堅信自己的觀點應該受到別人的關注。因此,所填的語句應該表明Szilard為什么有這樣強烈的自信,這樣才比較符合邏輯。

44. [答案] B首先我們應該確認Szilard是一位杰出的物理學家和社會活動家,這一點作者已經在文章的開頭就已經加以說明。第二,從第四段的最后一句中,我們得知Szilard確實是一個卓有遠見的人,他率先認識到希特勒的邪惡本質,提出了發展核武器的重要性,并且預見到了二戰以后核武器會帶來的問題。注意空白后的兩句話,似乎是說明Szilard具有一種堅韌不拔的精神,所以他才不會認為別人應該聽取他的意見,甚至一些淺顯的道理也需要他大張旗鼓加以宣傳。因此,空白處所填的語句應該包含段落的主題句,說明Szilard為什么會這樣堅韌不拔。選項B中的第一句正好可以被看作是該段內容的概括。

45. [答案] E現有的語句包含兩層意思,一是最重要的政策涉及的面要比科學本身大,二是僅有科學素養是不夠的,科學家還應思路開闊,多作分析。結合文章的主題,可以判定最后一段空白處所填的語句應該是科學家怎樣才能影響公共政策。因此,選項E是正確的。

Part C

46. 但是大學存在的主要理由既非單純的把知識傳授給學生,又非單純為教員們提供研究的機會。

47. 如果大學只是傳授知識,那么在15世紀印刷術普及之后,大學就沒有任何存在的理由了。

48. 大學之所以能夠存在下去,是因為大學能在富于想像力的學習過程中密切年輕與年長一代的關系,從而在追求知識的同時也保持對生活的熱情。

49. 想象使人總結一般原則并應用于實踐,獲得與存在的事實相適合的一般原則,并讓人對與原則相一致的各種可能進行理性的審視。

50. 如果平日需要維護一個具體的框架,就無法養成一個不帶任何偏見的思維習慣,而根據總的原則來辨別各種例證才是一種理想的做法。

Section Ⅲ Writing

Part A

Dear Sir or Madam,

I am a student of Jingning University, majoring in journalism. I am looking for a chance for internship at your evening post, preferably to work on the sports column.

I have a huge interest in sports, especially ball games. Ever since my high school days, I’ve been following all kinds of sports activities. In fact, I am on the basketball team of my university. The reason why I chose to study journalism is that I wish to become a sports reporter. I love the job and I am sure that I can do it well.

I’ll be very grateful if I could work as an intern at your paper.

Yours Sincerely

Li Ming

Part B

Life Means Interaction with People

The two men in the drawing seem to have bumped into each other head-on. One of them has dropped down to the ground. They are staring at each other in surprise.

I can’t help wondering what they would do next. How will they solve the issue? They are obviously two strangers who happen to bump against each other. It’s an accident, one we would come across on a daily basis. However, such an accident may develop into a bitter quarrel or an ugly fight. In some extreme cases, the loss of life can be caused.

In our daily routines, remember to say you are sorry if you do somebody else wrong, and be ready to be forgiving if you are offended. When you have an issue with somebody, try to find a nice way out. As the old saying goes, “Out of blows friendship grows.” Well, I hope the two men in the drawing can settle their “collision” in a friendly way. After all, life means interaction with people, though sometimes rather unexpectedly.

全國碩士研究生入學考試英語模擬試題 Test One

Section Ⅰ Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on Answer Sheet 1. (10 points)

Most worthwhile careers require some kind of specialized training. Ideally, therefore, the choice of an 1 should be made even before choice of a curriculum in high school.

Actually, 2 , most people make several job choices during their working lives, 3 because of economic and industrial changes and partly to improve their position. The “one perfect job” does not exist. Young people should 4 enter into a broad flexible training program that will fit them for a 5 of work rather than for a single job.

Unfortunately many young people have to make career plans 6 benefit of help from a competent vocational counselor or psychologist. Knowing 7 about the occupational world, or themselves for that matter, they choose their lifework on a hit-or-miss 8 . Some drift from job to job. Others 9 to work in which they are unhappy and for which they are not fitted.

One common mistake is choosing an occupation for its real or 10 prestige. Too many high瞫chool students or their parents for them choose the professional field, 11 both the relatively small proportion of workers in the professions and the extremely high educational and personal 12 . The prestige that people tend to 13 to a profession or a white-collar job is no good reason for choosing it as life’s work.

14 , these occupations are not always well paid. Since a large 15 of jobs are in mechanical and manual work, the majority of young people should give serious 16 to these fields.

Before making an occupational choice, a person should have a general idea of what he wants 17 life and how hard he is willing to work to get it. Some people desire social prestige, others intellectual 18 . Some want security; others are willing to take 19 for financial gain. Each occupational choice has its demands as well as its 20 .

1. [A] identification [B] entertainment [C] accommodation [D] occupation

2. [A] however [B] therefore [C] though [D] thereby

3. [A] entirely [B] mainly [C] partly [D] his

4. [A] since [B] therefore [C] furthermore [D] forever

5. [A] place [B] chance [C]field [D] opening

6. [A] to [B] for [C] without [D] with

7. [A] little [B] few [C] much [D] a lot

8. [A] chance [B] basis [C] purpose [D] opportunity

9. [A] apply [B] appeal [C] stick [D] turn

10. [A] imagined [B] substantial [C] acquired [D] demanded

11. [A] concerning [B] following [C] considering [D] disregarding

12. [A] preferences [B] requirements [C] tendencies [D] ambitions

13. [A] contribute [B] attach [C] attribute [D] allot

14. [A] Therefore [B] However [C] Nevertheless [D] Moreover

15. [A] proportion [B] part [C] quanitity [D] batch

16. [A] proposal [B] suggestion [C] consideration [D] appraisal

17. [A] towards [B] against [C] out of [D] without

18. [A] knowledge [B] satisfaction [C] culture [D] sensitivity

19. [A] turns [B] parts [C] choices [D] risks

20. [A] awards [B] requirements [C] results [D] needs

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on Answer Sheet 1. (40 points)

Text 1

It is said that people buy contemporary art when they are confident about the future and old art when they are not. Conventional wisdom has it that older art holds its value, while contemporary stuff is for risk-lovers. William Goetzmann, a professor at Yale, estimates that during the last art-market depression, which set in after 1990, impressionist and contemporary works fell by most (51% and 40% respectively), while Old Masters suffered least (down by 16%). Yet despite the ups and downs, contemporary works have been rewarding for those who are prepared to hang on: according to Jianping Mei and Michael Moses, professors at New York University (NYU) since 1970 the returns on contemporary art have far exceeded those on Old Masters and 19th-century paintings.

Since the late 1980s, more sophisticated analysis of the art market and a growing interest in alternative investments have spurred the creation of several new investment funds focused on art. At a recent conference organised by one of these, the Fine Art Fund, Rachel Campbell of Maastricht University pointed out the low correlation between returns on art and on those other investments. Given that it usually pays to diversify, that is a good argument for investing in art, whatever your taste. The Fine Art Fund, which began buying this April (and has 36% of its money in cash), advises that investors spread their art allocation fairly evenly between Impressionists, Old Masters, modern art and contemporary works.

Contemporary art, in particular, has served rich investors well in the past few years. Prices stayed stable when stock markets fell. Nevertheless, one recent academic study has found a correlation with another asset class: during the last world art boom, in the late 1980s, prices were closely tied to property values, specifically Japanese land prices. After 1990, art and property fell together. Now property prices in several countries are once again at frightening heights.

Investing in art will always be a risky business. Works of art by definition belong to different categories; holding periods vary; the market is illiquid; art yields no income, producing only capital gain or loss; transaction costs are high. As for contemporary art in particular, it is a sobering thought that, according to Mr Moses, each year an average of only two artists emerge whose work increases in value over time. All this speaks against a big commitment to speculating in art; better, maybe, simply to buy what you like, if you can: treat your money, in other words, not as invested but as consumed.

21. By saying that the market is illiquid (Line 2, Para. 4), the author suggests that .

[A] art works seldom lose their value in the market

[B] investment in art does not have guaranteed return of profits

[C] the difficulty to trade art works is obvious and evident

[D] the art market tends to be responsive to the economic situation

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