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作者:未知 文章來源:互聯網 更新時間:2008-08-28 17:12:05
    資料提示:Test 1 Many schools argue that the “sticker” prices shown in the U.S. News index are misleading, since most students, not ...

Test 1

Many schools argue that the “sticker” prices shown in the U.S. News index are misleading, since most students, not just those who might be described as truly “needy”, usually are eligible for some form of financial aid. (1) In fact, tuition discounting has become so widespread that on many campuses what began as a subsidy for the minority has turned into an entitlement for the majority. Some schools actually encourage students to bargain for larger aid packages by implicitly—or explicitly—promising “to meet the competition”. (2) Naturally, the somethingfornothing generosity of this strange system comes at a price, as increases in financial aid usually have to be funded by raising already high tuition higher still.

(3) Unhappily, college loans have become as much a part of student life as Friday night beer busts. Between 1990 and 1995, the S|103 billion combined with the total of undergraduate loans exceeded the sum of all the debt incurred by all the college students during the preceding three decades. (4) Statistics like these trouble Charles Manning, chancellor of the West Virginia University System, who worries that high levels of debt could “wind up negatively influencing students lifestyles, their choices of careers, their willingness to go to graduate and professional schools and their ability to buy homes, cars and other consumer products.”

Of even greater concern is that many of these debtors may also wind up, at least temporarily, in jobs that do not offer what have come to be thought of as collegelevel salaries. The disturbing truth is that there are simply too many college graduates competing for too few collegelevel jobs. In her latest study, Kristina J. Shelley, a Bureau of Labor Statistics specialist in the postcollegeemployment market, estimates that at least 22 percent of all college graduates entering the work force between 1994 and 2005 were or will be either unemployed or in jobs for which a bachelors degree is not ordinarily considered a necessity. (5) Working with some big companies is an honorable first job, but the salaries they offer rarely enable graduates both to repay a student loan and to enjoy a lifestyle appropriate with their expectations.

Test 2

We are learning new computer knowledge everyday. The technology, which has already transformed newspapering, doesnt sit still. We journalists have ceased all that grieving about how we were going to hang on to our typewriters and how this new staff was simply barbaric, an affront to the very concept of the written word. (1) Thats gone, as everything we know about human history should have told us that in all the current worries over problems created by the arrival of the computer age, one thing that should be exempted from worry is the capacity of human beings to adapt to it.

Our grandparents, for instance, easily traversed lifetimes that saw at least as much astonishing change as we have—from horsedrawn carriages to jet air travel, from pretelephone communication by written letter to communication by car phone, or fax. (2) Just as people around the world have in recent times shown themselves remarkably able to accommodate this kind of rapid change, so it didnt ever seem to trouble them. They absorbed the developing bounty without a peep and quickly came to depend on it, even though it collapsed all their accustomed notions of time and distance. (3) The human machine, in this infinite ability to adjust to radically changed environments, seems considerably more wondrous than the invented machine.

But it is not the individual human ability to adapt that is the problem in the new age. Rather, the problem is the ability of our institutions and economics and societies to do so. (4) No matter how upbeat one is about all the blessings that flow to this country from the new technology in terms of teaching, medicine, marketing, law enforcement and the rest, it is necessary to acknowledge that the blessing is mixed. You can accept that in the long run jobs will be created, not lost, as a result of the innovation. But in the short run there is bound to be economic displacement and loss. (5) You can also believe that our legal systems can in time withstand the challenge all this presents and still acknowledge that at least for the moment judicial problems have been created by it in the realms of privacy, competition, property rights and many others. The question is not whether we adjust to the electronic miracles all around us, but whether, as a society, we do it enthusiastically and well.

Test 3

Man may be called the animal with language. Only by language can man create and carry with him the body of concepts, attitudes and skills that constitute civilization. (1) Only by language can he have a clear notion of himself as an individual: “I think, therefore I am” and forge the bonds of a society—a society as distinguished from some sort of instinctual herd.

Ordinarily and superficially, we regard language as merely a convenient device for communicating preexisting ideas or attitudes. It is indeed hard to overestimate the value of language in communication but it is even harder to overestimate it in thinking. (2) How often have we felt that we knew our own minds on something, or knew all about something, only to find, when we started to put what we knew into words, that we didnt know our own minds at all. When we frame even the simplest sentence, we are forced to establish a set of meaningful relations. That is, we are forced to think more clearly. Writing things out is only a more rigorous way of trying to understand a subject and understand oneself in relation to that subject.

We not only think things out, we feel things out, too. And language is fundamental to this “feeling out”. (3) A human being isnt merely a machine for logical thought. A considerable part of our use of language involves our instinctive attempt to clarify our feelings. It helps us to understand feelings as well as ideas, and thus in the end, helps us to understand ourselves.

(4) If you are beginning your college career, much of your instruction will be in language, and will be required to respond in language. After college, in most occupations, language will become more, not less, important. There are letters and reports to be written, conferences to be held, policies to be drawn up and debated and many other forms of communication that require skill in language. (5) If a man lacks competence in language, he will spend much of his life exploring in a kind of twilight world in which ideas and feelings are perceived only dimly and often in distorted shapes.

Test 4

It is natural for young people to be critical of their parents at times and to blame them for most of misunderstandings between them. (1) They have always complained that their parents are out of touch with modern ways; that they are possessive and dominant; that they do not trust their children to deal with crisis.

(2) It is universally acknowledged that parents often underestimate their teenage children and also fade in their memory how they themselves felt when young.

Young people often irritate their parents with their choices in clothes and hairstyles, in entertainers and music. This is not their motive. (3) They feel cut off from the adult world into which they have not yet been accepted so they create a culture and society of their own. Then, if it turns out that their music or entertainers or vocabulary or clothes or hairstyles irritates their parents, this gives them additional enjoyment. They feel they are superior, at least in a small way, and that they are leaders in style and taste.

Sometimes they are resistant and proud because they do not want their parents to approve of what they do. If their parents did approve, it looks as if they are betraying their own age group. But in that case, they are assuming that they are the underdog: you cant win but at least you can keep your honor. This is a passive way of looking at things. (4) It is natural enough after long years of childhood, when they were completely under their parents domination. But it ignores the fact that they are now beginning to be responsible for themselves.

My advice to young people is as follows: if you plan to control your life, cooperation can be part of that plan. (5) You can charm others, especially your parents, into doing things the way you want. You can impress others with your sense of responsibility and initiative, so that they will give you the authority to do what you want to do.

Test 5

There is a difference between science and technology. Science is a method of answering theoretical questions; technology is a method of solving practical problems. (1) Science has to do with discovering the facts and relationships between observable phenomena in nature and with establishing theories that serve to organize these facts and relationships. Technology has to do with tools, techniques, and procedures for implementing the findings of science.

Another distinction between science and technology has to do with the progress in each. Progress in science excludes the human factor. (2) Scientists, who seek to comprehend the universe and know the truth with the highest degree of accuracy and certainty, cannot pay attention to their own or other peoples likes or dislikes, or to popular ideas about the fitness of things. What scientists discover may shock or anger people—as did Darwins theory of evolution. But even an unpleasant truth is more than likely to be useful; besides, we have the option of refusing to believe it! (3) But hardly so with technology; we do not have the option of refusing to hear the sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft flying overhead; we do not have the option of refusing to breathe polluted air. (4) The legitimate purpose of technology is to serve people—people in general, not merely some people; and future generations, not merely those who presently wish to gain advantage for themselves.

We are all familiar with the abuses of technology. (5) Many people blame technology itself for widespread pollution, and even social decay—so much so that the promise of technology is obscured. That promise is a cleaner and healthier world. If wise applications of science and technology do not lead to a better world, what else will?

Test 6

England and France are separated by twentytwo miles of open sea at their closest point. (1) Attempts to swim the English Channel have been made by people of all ages and from various walks of life. Each swimmer is drawn to the famous channel for different reasons, but each has the same goal—to conquer the channel.

The English Channel was first crossed in 1875 by Mathew Webb, an Englishman, who swam breaststroke from Dover, England, to Calais, France. (2) Since then, over 3,700 people have made approximately 4,500 attempts on the channel. Only 297 people, however, have successfully duplicated Webbs remarkable achievement.

Cold water, rough seas, strong currents, heavy winds and jellyfish are among the many reasons why the success rate is so low.

Swimmers and escort crews must wait for periods of calm seas and light winds, lasting 1020 hours. (3) Much tothe frustration of the athletes and their coaches and crews, the weather may only cooperate a few days each year.

Once in the channel, swimmers are always at the mercy of the elements since temperatures, winds and currents can change hourly. (4) Quite often, luck and good timing play as important a role in a swimmers success as proper physical training and mental preparation.

Channel swimmers come in all ages, abilities and backgrounds. (5) But swimming the English Channel will always be the same to all its challengers—an incredible adventure that tests the limit of human endurance, courage and perseverance.

參考譯文

〖1〗Test 1

1. 事實上,削減學費變得如此之流行,以至于在許多大學里,那些最初屬于少數人的補貼已經成為多數人的權利了。

2. 很自然,這種奇怪的制度要為它只是給予而不求回報的慷慨行為付出代價,因為經濟資助的增加通常不得不靠大幅度地提高本已高昂的學費來提供資金。

3. 不幸的是,大學貸款已經像星期五晚上痛飲啤酒一樣成為學生生活的一部分。

4. 諸如此類的統計資料使西弗吉尼亞大學校長查爾斯·曼寧感到憂慮。他擔心,沉重的債務“最終可能對學生的許多方面產生負面影響,如: 他們的生活方式,對職業的選擇,上研究生院和職業學校的意愿以及購買房屋、汽車和其他消費品的能力”。

5. 在一些大公司工作是體面的新工作,但它們所支付的工資不可能使大學畢業生們既能償還學生貸款又能享受一種與其期望值相稱的生活方式。

Test 2

1. 悲傷已經成為過去,因為我們所了解的人類歷史都表明,在目前人們對計算機時代的到來所引起的問題的憂慮中,有一個問題不應引起憂慮,那就是人類的適應能力。

2. 近年來,面對這種日新月異的變化,世界各地的人們表現出非凡的適應能力,變化好像從來沒有使他們感到過不適應。

3. 人類自身的這部機器,對劇烈變化的環境具有無限的適應能力,在這個方面,它比發明出來的機器要奇妙得多。

4. 不管人們對新技術在教學、醫療、商品銷售、執法及其他方面為國家帶來的好處多么樂觀,必須承認,新技術令人喜憂參半。

5. 你也可以相信,我們的法律制度最終會經受一切挑戰,但同時仍要承認,至少目前新技術在隱私權、競爭、產權及許多其他領域已經帶來了司法問題。

Test 3

1. 只有借助語言,人類才能夠對于作為個體的自身有清晰的認識: “我思故我在”,也才能夠形成一個社會——一個不同于靠本能生存的獸群的社會。

2. 我們常常有這種感覺,本以為知道自己對某件事情的想法,或完全了解某件事情,但是,當我們開始要把所了解的內容用語言表達出來時,卻發現我們根本不清楚自己的想法。

3. 人不僅僅是邏輯思維的機器。我們運用語言很大程度上在于我們本能地想要把我們的感情表達清楚。

4. 如果你即將開始大學生活,大部分課程都將通過語言來講授,而且要求你運用語言作出反應。大學畢業之后,在大多數工作中,語言將會更重要,而不是不重要。

5. 一個人如果缺乏語言能力,那么,他一生的大部分時間將在思想和感情表達模糊、而且經常被曲解的朦朧世界中摸索。

Test 4

1. 年輕人總是抱怨,他們的父母與現代生活方式脫節,有占有欲和支配欲,不相信子女應付危機的能力。

2. 普遍認為,做父母的常常低估他們處于青少年時期的孩子,而且還忘記了自己年輕時的感受。

3. 他們覺得被成年人世界排除在外,尚未被大人們所接受,于是就創造了屬于他們自己的文化和社會。

4. 在長時間完全受父母控制的童年時代結束之后,產生這種態度非常自然。但是,這種態度忽略了這樣一個事實: 此時他們要開始對自己負起責任。

5. 你可以讓他人,尤其是你的父母,高高興興地按你希望的方式行事。你可以用你的責任感和進取心打動他人,那樣他們才會準許你做你想做的事。

Test 5

1. 科學關注的是發現事實,找出自然界可觀察的各種現象之間的關系,并建立起一些理論,將這些事實與關系組織起來。

2. 科學家在試圖最精確、最可靠地理解宇宙、了解真相時,不能夠顧及他們本人或他人的好惡以及關于事物合理性的普遍看法。

3. 不過,技術就不同了。我們無法不去聽在頭頂掠過的超音速飛機發出的轟鳴,也無法拒絕呼吸被污染了的空氣。

4. 技術的正當目的就是服務于人——是服務于所有人,而不僅僅是某些人;是服務于未來一代又一代的人,而不僅僅是那些希望馬上從中獲益的人。

5. 許多人責怪技術是因為它引起了大規模的污染,甚至社會腐敗;人們對技術的指責如此之多,以至于科技發展的前景也模糊不清了。

Test 6

1. 不同年齡和不同職業的人都曾經試圖游過英吉利海峽。游泳愛好者被吸引到這個著名的海峽來的原因各不相同,然而他們的目標是一致的——征服海峽。

2. 從那時起,有3700多人進行了大約4500次橫渡海峽的嘗試,然而,只有297人成功地再現了韋布的驚人成就。

3. 讓運動員、教練員和護衛人員頗為泄氣的是,一年當中老天爺樂意配合的日子只有幾天。

4. 運氣的好壞和時機的選擇對游泳者的成功所起到的作用常常和適當的體能訓練和心理準備所起到的作用相當。

5. 但是,游過英吉利海峽對所有的挑戰者來說一直具有同樣的意義——它是向人類的耐力、勇氣和韌性的極限的挑戰,是一次令人難以置信的冒險。

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