Many schools argue that the “sticker” prices shown in the U.S. News index are misleading, since most students, not just those who might be described as truly “needy”, usually are eligible for some form of financial aid. (1) In fact, tuition discounting has become so widespread that on many campuses what began as a subsidy for the minority has turned into an entitlement for the majority. Some schools actually encourage students to bargain for larger aid packages by implicitly—or explicitly—promising “to meet the competition”. (2) Naturally, the somethingfornothing generosity of this strange system comes at a price, as increases in financial aid usually have to be funded by raising already high tuition higher still.
(3) Unhappily, college loans have become as much a part of student life as Friday night beer busts. Between 1990 and 1995, the S｜103 billion combined with the total of undergraduate loans exceeded the sum of all the debt incurred by all the college students during the preceding three decades. (4) Statistics like these trouble Charles Manning, chancellor of the West Virginia University System, who worries that high levels of debt could “wind up negatively influencing students lifestyles, their choices of careers, their willingness to go to graduate and professional schools and their ability to buy homes, cars and other consumer products.”
Of even greater concern is that many of these debtors may also wind up, at least temporarily, in jobs that do not offer what have come to be thought of as collegelevel salaries. The disturbing truth is that there are simply too many college graduates competing for too few collegelevel jobs. In her latest study, Kristina J. Shelley, a Bureau of Labor Statistics specialist in the postcollegeemployment market, estimates that at least 22 percent of all college graduates entering the work force between 1994 and 2005 were or will be either unemployed or in jobs for which a bachelors degree is not ordinarily considered a necessity. (5) Working with some big companies is an honorable first job, but the salaries they offer rarely enable graduates both to repay a student loan and to enjoy a lifestyle appropriate with their expectations.
We are learning new computer knowledge everyday. The technology, which has already transformed newspapering, doesnt sit still. We journalists have ceased all that grieving about how we were going to hang on to our typewriters and how this new staff was simply barbaric, an affront to the very concept of the written word. (1) Thats gone, as everything we know about human history should have told us that in all the current worries over problems created by the arrival of the computer age, one thing that should be exempted from worry is the capacity of human beings to adapt to it.
Our grandparents, for instance, easily traversed lifetimes that saw at least as much astonishing change as we have—from horsedrawn carriages to jet air travel, from pretelephone communication by written letter to communication by car phone, or fax. (2) Just as people around the world have in recent times shown themselves remarkably able to accommodate this kind of rapid change, so it didnt ever seem to trouble them. They absorbed the developing bounty without a peep and quickly came to depend on it, even though it collapsed all their accustomed notions of time and distance. (3) The human machine, in this infinite ability to adjust to radically changed environments, seems considerably more wondrous than the invented machine.
But it is not the individual human ability to adapt that is the problem in the new age. Rather, the problem is the ability of our institutions and economics and societies to do so. (4) No matter how upbeat one is about all the blessings that flow to this country from the new technology in terms of teaching, medicine, marketing, law enforcement and the rest, it is necessary to acknowledge that the blessing is mixed. You can accept that in the long run jobs will be created, not lost, as a result of the innovation. But in the short run there is bound to be economic displacement and loss. (5) You can also believe that our legal systems can in time withstand the challenge all this presents and still acknowledge that at least for the moment judicial problems have been created by it in the realms of privacy, competition, property rights and many others. The question is not whether we adjust to the electronic miracles all around us, but whether, as a society, we do it enthusiastically and well.
Man may be called the animal with language. Only by language can man create and carry with him the body of concepts, attitudes and skills that constitute civilization. (1) Only by language can he have a clear notion of himself as an individual: “I think, therefore I am” and forge the bonds of a society—a society as distinguished from some sort of instinctual herd.
Ordinarily and superficially, we regard language as merely a convenient device for communicating preexisting ideas or attitudes. It is indeed hard to overestimate the value of language in communication but it is even harder to overestimate it in thinking. (2) How often have we felt that we knew our own minds on something, or knew all about something, only to find, when we started to put what we knew into words, that we didnt know our own minds at all. When we frame even the simplest sentence, we are forced to establish a set of meaningful relations. That is, we are forced to think more clearly. Writing things out is only a more rigorous way of trying to understand a subject and understand oneself in relation to that subject.
We not only think things out, we feel things out, too. And language is fundamental to this “feeling out”. (3) A human being isnt merely a machine for logical thought. A considerable part of our use of language involves our instinctive attempt to clarify our feelings. It helps us to understand feelings as well as ideas, and thus in the end, helps us to understand ourselves.
(4) If you are beginning your college career, much of your instruction will be in language, and will be required to respond in language. After college, in most occupations, language will become more, not less, important. There are letters and reports to be written, conferences to be held, policies to be drawn up and debated and many other forms of communication that require skill in language. (5) If a man lacks competence in language, he will spend much of his life exploring in a kind of twilight world in which ideas and feelings are perceived only dimly and often in distorted shapes.
It is natural for young people to be critical of their parents at times and to blame them for most of misunderstandings between them. (1) They have always complained that their parents are out of touch with modern ways; that they are possessive and dominant; that they do not trust their children to deal with crisis.
(2) It is universally acknowledged that parents often underestimate their teenage children and also fade in their memory how they themselves felt when young.
Young people often irritate their parents with their choices in clothes and hairstyles, in entertainers and music. This is not their motive. (3) They feel cut off from the adult world into which they have not yet been accepted so they create a culture and society of their own. Then, if it turns out that their music or entertainers or vocabulary or clothes or hairstyles irritates their parents, this gives them additional enjoyment. They feel they are superior, at least in a small way, and that they are leaders in style and taste.
Sometimes they are resistant and proud because they do not want their parents to approve of what they do. If their parents did approve, it looks as if they are betraying their own age group. But in that case, they are assuming that they are the underdog: you cant win but at least you can keep your honor. This is a passive way of looking at things. (4) It is natural enough after long years of childhood, when they were completely under their parents domination. But it ignores the fact that they are now beginning to be responsible for themselves.
My advice to young people is as follows: if you plan to control your life, cooperation can be part of that plan. (5) You can charm others, especially your parents, into doing things the way you want. You can impress others with your sense of responsibility and initiative, so that they will give you the authority to do what you want to do.
There is a difference between science and technology. Science is a method of answering theoretical questions; technology is a method of solving practical problems. (1) Science has to do with discovering the facts and relationships between observable phenomena in nature and with establishing theories that serve to organize these facts and relationships. Technology has to do with tools, techniques, and procedures for implementing the findings of science.
Another distinction between science and technology has to do with the progress in each. Progress in science excludes the human factor. (2) Scientists, who seek to comprehend the universe and know the truth with the highest degree of accuracy and certainty, cannot pay attention to their own or other peoples likes or dislikes, or to popular ideas about the fitness of things. What scientists discover may shock or anger people—as did Darwins theory of evolution. But even an unpleasant truth is more than likely to be useful; besides, we have the option of refusing to believe it! (3) But hardly so with technology; we do not have the option of refusing to hear the sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft flying overhead; we do not have the option of refusing to breathe polluted air. (4) The legitimate purpose of technology is to serve people—people in general, not merely some people; and future generations, not merely those who presently wish to gain advantage for themselves.
We are all familiar with the abuses of technology. (5) Many people blame technology itself for widespread pollution, and even social decay—so much so that the promise of technology is obscured. That promise is a cleaner and healthier world. If wise applications of science and technology do not lead to a better world, what else will?
England and France are separated by twentytwo miles of open sea at their closest point. (1) Attempts to swim the English Channel have been made by people of all ages and from various walks of life. Each swimmer is drawn to the famous channel for different reasons, but each has the same goal—to conquer the channel.
The English Channel was first crossed in 1875 by Mathew Webb, an Englishman, who swam breaststroke from Dover, England, to Calais, France. (2) Since then, over 3,700 people have made approximately 4,500 attempts on the channel. Only 297 people, however, have successfully duplicated Webbs remarkable achievement.
Cold water, rough seas, strong currents, heavy winds and jellyfish are among the many reasons why the success rate is so low.
Swimmers and escort crews must wait for periods of calm seas and light winds, lasting 1020 hours. (3) Much tothe frustration of the athletes and their coaches and crews, the weather may only cooperate a few days each year.
Once in the channel, swimmers are always at the mercy of the elements since temperatures, winds and currents can change hourly. (4) Quite often, luck and good timing play as important a role in a swimmers success as proper physical training and mental preparation.
Channel swimmers come in all ages, abilities and backgrounds. (5) But swimming the English Channel will always be the same to all its challengers—an incredible adventure that tests the limit of human endurance, courage and perseverance.
4. 諸如此類的統計資料使西弗吉尼亞大學校長查爾斯·曼寧感到憂慮。他擔心，沉重的債務“最終可能對學生的許多方面產生負面影響，如： 他們的生活方式，對職業的選擇，上研究生院和職業學校的意愿以及購買房屋、汽車和其他消費品的能力”。
1. 只有借助語言，人類才能夠對于作為個體的自身有清晰的認識： “我思故我在”，也才能夠形成一個社會——一個不同于靠本能生存的獸群的社會。
4. 在長時間完全受父母控制的童年時代結束之后，產生這種態度非常自然。但是，這種態度忽略了這樣一個事實： 此時他們要開始對自己負起責任。